Skin Wound Healing Process and New Emerging Technologies for Skin Wound Care and Regeneration



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pharmaceutics-12-00735
Pharmaceutics 202012, x FOR PEER REVIEW 
15 of 31 
This underlines the complexity in the realization of a scaffold and all the studies necessary to achieve 
a structure similar to physiological ECMs. Nowadays, numerous approaches are used for designing 
matrices, consisting of increasingly innovative biomaterials. Until recently, the only two 
characteristics that a biomaterial had to possess were biocompatibility (the material must be neither 
cytotoxic nor immunogenic) and biodegradability (the material must be easily eliminated once its 
function is fulfilled). However, in the modern sense of biomaterials, we must also add the ability to 
interface with a biological environment and specifically modulate cellular response. The biomaterial 
becomes, therefore, not only a support for tissue regeneration or a platform for drug delivery, but an 
active part of cellular function regulation. Based on these assumptions, different parameters have to 
be taken into consideration such as the physico‐chemical properties of pristine materials, mechanical 
properties, scaffold shape, structure, pore sizes and their distribution. 
Figure 4. Schematic representation of classical tissue engineering approach. 
5.1.1. Structural Characteristics 
Skin architectural and mechanical complexity and its properties depend on specific anatomical 
regions, making scaffold design and production challenging. [90]. Scaffold physico‐chemical 
characterization involves morphology, porosity, water contact angle, mechanical properties, 
chemical bonds, stability upon incubation in simulated physiological fluids and cell culture 
medium, while in vitro
 
biological characterization addresses the testing adhesion, adhesion and 
migration of human cells. To assess these aspects, indirect analyses of immunofluorescence, confocal 
laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 
transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheological measurements are conducted. Matrix 

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