• The first step is the harvesting of the cocoa pods containing the cocoa beans.
• The pods A (crush) and the beans and surrounding pulp extracted and fermented naturally for about six days, after which the beans B (dry).
• The finest chocolate C (produce) when the drying process D (do) naturally by the sun for 7 days or more.
• The next process E (share) with coffee in that the beans F (be) first G (grade), then roasted.
• Light crushing separates the kernel or “nib” from the shell or husk (like shelling a nut); the husk H (be) then I (separate) or “winnowed” out and discarded.
• The nibs, which are very high in fat or cocoa butter, J (be) then finely K (mill) and liquefy in the heat produced by the milling process to produce cocoa liquor.
• At this point the manufacturing process splits according to the final product. If the end product is chocolate, some of the cocoa liquor L (reserve); the rest M (press) to extract the cocoa butter, leaving a solid residue called press cake. Press cake N (be) finely O(grind) to produce the product known to consumers as cocoa powder.
• The retained cocoa liquor and/or solid cocoa mass P (blend) with chocolate butter and other ingredients to produce the various types of chocolate.
Adapted from . Accessed on February 5, 2016.
3. What would have happened if the car had never been invented? Read this incomplete excerpt once and check how much you understand. In your notebook, write down the correct combination of letters–numbers to complete the text.
During the early 20th century, the dominant mode changed from rail to auto. In the 2nd half of the century, air travel became of major significance. Energy efficiency improved since the new modes were much more energy-efficient than the old rail mode was in 1900.
Technological improvements (with setbacks at times) also helped. But ironically, if the auto and airplaneA and most all travel was still by rail, fuel efficiency B even more, since government might have mandated energy-efficiency standards for rail like they did for autos. And without the convenience of the auto and the high speed of the airplane, there would have been far less travel. Thus far less energy C. […]
Some people erroneously think that a major reason for the high fuel consumption today is because we abandoned rail to opt for the auto and airplane. In other words, we are using the wrong modes. But if we continued to travel as much as we do now and did it all by rail, we D much energy either, since the energy efficiency of rail isn’t much better than the auto. In reality, if rail E the only option for travel today, the volumeof travel F due to the inconvenience of schedules and access. This would save a lot of energy, not because of rail but because of less travel.