Which rule can be exemplified by the excerpt in activity 1?
3. Read historic news releases on affirmative actions. Write in your notebook the verbs used to report what someone has said.
a) The Hidden Truth About Liberals and Affirmative Action
September 21, 1997
Polls indicate that liberals favor affirmative action, while conservatives oppose it. But a book by two political scientists suggests that people do not always say what they really think about race, and that white liberals are as angry about affirmative action as white conservatives.
b) Texas Campus Attracts Fewer Minorities
August 28, 1997
University of Texas officials agree that the scarcity of minority students is a direct result of new prohibitions on racial preferences that could affect the university’s makeup – and its public image – for years to come.
c) Black, Hispanic Admissions Plunge at 2 Calif. Campuses
April 1, 1998
The University of California’s two premier campuses are reporting that their first undergraduate classes chosen without the use of affirmative action will have an extraordinarily low number of black and Hispanic students.
The Clinton administration’s five-month review of government affirmative action programs concludes that the vast majority of them should continue but that significant reforms may be needed in the way federal contracts are set aside for minorities.
Available at . Accessed on February 1, 2016.
4. To report what others have said, we usually change the verb of the sentence that we are reporting. Study these examples and answer the questions.
I am proud of affirmative action.
Eva Jefferson Paterson
I graduated with honors and am working on a master’s degree in History.
Albert Vetere Lannon
Eva said that she was proud of affirmative action.
Albert said that he had graduated with honors and was working on a master’s degree in History.
a) What changed in the verbs used by Eva and Albert when the two sentences turned into reported speech?
b) What is the rule for changing sentences from direct into indirect speech? Answer in your notebook. I. Change the verb to its past form. II. Keep the verb in the same form.
c) How did the pronoun I change in the reported speech examples?
5. If you heard what the people below said, how would you report it to a friend? Turn these sentences into reported speech. Use the verbs in parentheses to write more precise sentences in your notebook.
a) “I got into Boalt Law School (U. C. Berkeley) through an affirmative action program, a program that gave me the opportunity to study Law.” (state)
b) “I am proud of affirmative action because I am qualified.” (declare)
c) “The fact is that we older white men are beneficiaries of affirmative action.” (recognize)
d) “I entered San Francisco State University at age 50 through the re-entry program, a form of affirmative action.” (point out)
6. Interview people in your family and your neigborhood to find their opinions about affirmative actions. Ask the questions in Portuguese and then write a report in English. Read it to your classmates.
Did you know…?
Sometimes we report what someone said using his/her exact same words. This is called direct speech. In this situation, we must use “quotation marks” to reinforce that we are using someone else’s words.