Palavras-chave: Colonialidade do Poder; Povos Indígenas; Belo Monte.
The intensive process of extermination of indigenous peoples and their forced assimilation into the national / modern culture decimated large part of the native populations in the American Continent. The colonial power reveals itself from another aspect after the independence of the colonies. Outside the formal political-juridical structures, it acts in the intersubjectivity of social imaginaries through domination, exploitation and conflict. This new pattern of power is termed coloniality of power and uses the concept of race in order to dominate and subalternize indigenous peoples, depriving them of their rights and ways of living. The coloniality has operated not only on the lands and resources which derived from it, but also on the production of concepts and the social imaginary, causing a violent destruction of cultures and forms of existence in Latin America. Since white / European man has been identified as the most advanced reference of all species, the world is looked from this perspective and everything is organized according to the categories which emerge from this position, unique and legitimately valid. The category of coloniality of power was used in this thesis in order to think about the application of the rights of indigenous peoples in the judicial case of Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant, in the state of Pará, Brazil. The correlation between law and coloniality unveils the practical effects of the judicial decisions in Belo Monte as the situation of the indigenous peoples exposes violations which put them in risk of colonial extermination once again. Furthermore, this study was revealing in the sense of Enrique Dussel's critique of the denial of life suffered by the excluded-affected who find themselves outside the modern colonial world system and it points out the urgency to break with this logic in order to build another possible and feasible world.